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  • 在液压转动中如何提高效率
  • 本站编辑:杭州耐准精密机械有限公司发布日期:2019-08-15 16:12 浏览次数:

液压传动具有很多优点,在我国机电一体化的发展中占着重要地位。但是在液压传动中,能量损失(泄漏损失、溢流功率损失、节流功率损失、摩擦损失等)较大,传动效率低。液压系统的这些能量损耗都将变成热量,使系统温度升高,而高温又会影响液压元件使用寿命和系统工作的可靠性,所以在液压传动设计中必须考虑提高效率问题。该文主要从三方面讨论此问题。

  1. 合理选择动力元件

 

  这里主要指液压泵和电机的选择,应根据工况负荷图选择匹配电机和液压泵,尤其是定量泵型号不能过大,这样可降低能耗。

 

  2. 合理布置管路

 

  在布置管路时,尽可能缩短管路长度,减少管路弯曲和截面的突然变化,管内壁力求光滑,选择合理管径,采用较低流速,可以减少系统压力损失,提高系统效率。

 

  3. 合理选择液压回路

 

  回路选择得当,可明显地提高效率,降低能耗。

 

  1) 双泵并联供油回路 快速时两泵同时供油,工作进给时,高压小流量泵供油,从而实现了能量的合理使用。

 

    2) 采用蓄能器的回路用蓄能器和小流量泵匹配,可满足液压系统大流量需求,液压缸停止运动时,泵对蓄能器充油;当液压缸工作时,泵和蓄能器同时供油。

 

    3) 容积调速回路容积调速回路没有节流调速回路的节流功率损失和溢流功率损失,效率较高。

 

    4) 卸荷回路卸荷回路就是使油泵空载运转(输出功率很小)的回路。根据公式N=P Q 可知,如泵的输出流量Q。为零,或输出压力P 为零,都可使泵的输出功率N 为零而实现卸荷。当系统中各个执行元件暂时不工作时,若液压泵仍以溢流阀调定的压力值排流回油箱,则造成功率损失和油液发热,所以使泵空载运行可以节能,某些功率较大的液压泵,为保护电机也应卸荷情况下轻载启动。

 

    5) 远控平衡回路远控平衡阀的开启压力与液压油缸的背压无关,一般只需系统压力的30%~40%。活塞下行平衡阀被控制油打开,背压消失,系统效率较高。

Hydraulic transmission has many advantages and occupies an important position in the development of electromechanical integration in our country. However, in hydraulic transmission, energy loss (leakage loss, overflow power loss, throttle power loss, friction loss, etc.) is large, and transmission efficiency is low. These energy loss of hydraulic system will become heat, making the system temperature rise, and high temperature will affect the service life of hydraulic components and system reliability, so in the design of hydraulic transmission must consider to improve efficiency. This paper mainly discusses this problem from three aspects.

1. Reasonable selection of power components

This mainly refers to the selection of hydraulic pump and motor, which should be matched according to the working load diagram, especially the quantitative pump model should not be too large, so as to reduce energy consumption.

2. Reasonably arrange pipelines

In the layout of the pipeline, as far as possible to shorten the length of the pipeline, reduce the pipeline bending and section of the sudden change, the inner wall of the pipe to smooth, choose a reasonable pipe diameter, use a lower flow rate, can reduce the pressure loss of the system, improve the efficiency of the system.

3. Reasonable selection of hydraulic circuit

Proper circuit selection can obviously improve efficiency and reduce energy consumption.

1) when the parallel oil supply circuit of double pumps is fast, the two pumps supply oil at the same time. When the operation is fed, the high pressure and small flow pumps supply oil, so as to realize the reasonable use of energy.

2) the accumulator is matched with the small flow pump in the loop of the accumulator to meet the large flow demand of the hydraulic system. When the hydraulic cylinder stops moving, the pump will fill the accumulator with oil; When the hydraulic cylinder works, the pump and accumulator supply oil simultaneously.

3) volume speed regulation circuit volume speed regulation circuit does not throttle power loss and overflow power loss of throttle speed regulation circuit, with high efficiency.

4) unloading circuit According to the formula N=P Q, such as the output flow of the pump Q. Is zero, or the output pressure P is zero, can make the output power of the pump N is zero and achieve unloading. When each actuator in the system does not work temporarily, if the hydraulic pump is still discharged back to the oil tank with the pressure value set by the overflow valve, it will cause power loss and oil heating, so the no-load operation of the pump can save energy, some hydraulic pumps with large power should be started under light load in order to protect the motor.

5) the open pressure of the remote control balance valve in the remote control balance circuit has nothing to do with the back pressure of the hydraulic cylinder, generally only 30% ~ 40% of the system pressure. The piston downward balance valve is opened by the control oil, the back pressure disappears, and the system efficiency is higher.